This blog provides a guide to help you deploying Contour Ingress Controller onto a Tanzu Kubernetes Grid (TKG) cluster. Contour is an open source Kubernetes ingress controller that exposes HTTP/HTTPS routes for internal services so they are reachable from outside the cluster. Like many other ingress controllers, Contour can provide advanced L7 URL/URI based routing and load balancing, as well as SSL/TLS termination capabilities.
Contour was originally developed by Heptio (VMware) and has been recently handed over to CNCF as an incubating project. Contour consists of a control plane that is provisioned via a K8s deployment, and an Envoy-based data plane running as a Daemonset on every cluster worker node.
Download the Tanzu Kubernetes Grid 1.1 Extension manifestsat here
For this lab, we’ll install the Contour ingress controller onto a TKG cluster, and we’ll then deploy a sample app (supplied within the manifest) for testing the Ingress services. The overall service topology will look like this:
Install the Contour Ingress Controller
To begin, unzip the TKG extension manifest (I’m using v1.1.0).
[root@pacific-ops01 ~]# tar -xzf tkg-extensions-manifests-v1.1.0-vmware.1.tar.gz
Log into your TKG cluster and make sure you are in the correct context.
Next, install the Cert-Manager (for Contour Ingress) onto the TKG cluster.
Before we can install Contour and Envoy, we’ll need to make a small change to the Envoy service config (02-service-envoy.yaml). As illustrated in the service topology, we will deploy a LoadBalancer in front of the ingress controller. So we’ll update the Envoy service type from NodePort (default) to LoadBalancer.
Now deploy Contour and Envoy onto the cluster.
We can see a Contour deployment, and an Envoy daemonset of 3x (we have 3 worker nodes) have been deployed under the namespace of tanzu-system-ingress. Also, take a note of the external IP (192.168.100.130) of the Envoy LoadBalancer service as this will be used by our Ingress services.
Deploy a Sample App for testing Ingress Services
Deploy the sample app from within the manifest, this will create:
one new namespace called “test-ingress”
one deployment of the “helloweb” app, with a Replicaset of 3x Pods
two separate services called “s1” & “s2” — Note: both services are actually pointing to the same 3x Pods (as they are using the same Pod selector)
Verify the Pods are up and running
[root@pacific-ops01 ~]# kubectl get pods -n test-ingress
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
helloweb-7cd97b9cb8-qjwtk 1/1 Running 0 50s
helloweb-7cd97b9cb8-r9s8g 1/1 Running 0 51s
helloweb-7cd97b9cb8-swztl 1/1 Running 0 51s
and both services (s1 & s2) are deployed as expected.
[root@pacific-ops01 ~]# kubectl get svc -n test-ingress
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
s1 ClusterIP 10.40.183.104 <none> 80/TCP 1m
s2 ClusterIP 10.40.129.12 <none> 80/TCP 1m
We can’t get to these services yet as they are internal K8s services (ClusterIP) only. We’ll need to deploy an Ingress object so that Contour can expose these services and route traffic to them from external. The good news is that there’s already an Ingress config template provided in the manifest. I’ve made the following changes to the template as per my lab environment (my lab domain is vxlan.co). Note the hostname (URL) and the path (URI) as we’ll be using these to access the two services.
Deploy the Ingress object.
[root@pacific-ops01 ~]# cd tkg-extensions-v1.1.0/ingress/contour/examples/https-ingress
[root@pacific-ops01 https-ingress]# kubectl apply -f .
Verify the Ingress service is running as expected
[root@pacific-ops01 https-ingress]# kubectl get ingress -n test-ingress
NAME HOSTS ADDRESS PORTS AGE
https-ingress ingress.vxlan.co 80, 443 2m
Create a DNS record with the ingress hostname by pointing to the Envoy load balancer external IP.
I’ll be building a nested vSphere7/VCF4 environment in my home lab ESXi host, and the overall lab setup looks like below:
As you might have guessed, this lab requires a lot of resources! In specific you’ll need the following:
physical ESXi host running at least vSphere 6.7 or later
capacity to provision VM with up to 8x vCPU
capacity to provision up to 140-180GB of RAM
around 1TB of spare storage
a flat /24 subnet connected to external & Internet (can be shared with lab management network)
access to vSphere 7 ESXi/VCSA and NSX-T/Edge 3.0 OVA files and trial licenses
In order to save time on provisioning the vSphere/VCF stack, I’m using William Lam‘s vSphere 7 automation script as discussed here. You can find the PowerShell code and further details at his Git repository.
All demo apps and configuration yaml files used in this lab can be found at my Git Repo.
We’ll cover the following steps:
#1 – build a (nested) vSphere7/VCF4 stack
#2 – configure workload management and deploy supervisor cluster
#3 – deploy a demo app with native vSphere Pod services
First, you’ll need to download William’s PowerShell script and modify it based on your own lab environment. You’ll also need to download the required OVAs and place them in the same path as defined in the script — Note for the VCSA you’ll need to unzip the ISO and point the path to the unzipped folder!
Now let’s run the PowerShell script and you’ll see a deployment summary page like this:
Hit “Y” to kickoff the deployment and for me the whole process took just a little over 1 hour.
Once the script completes you should see a vAPP look like this deployed under your physical ESXi host.
Step-2: Configure Workload Management and Deploy Supervisor Cluster
To activate vSphere 7 native Kubernetes capabilities, we need to enable workload management which will configure our nested ESXi cluster as a supervisor cluster. First, log into the nested VCSA, and navigate to “Menu” —> “Workload Management”, click “Enable”:
Select our nested ESXi cluster to be configured as a supervisor cluster
Select supervisor Control Plane VM size
Configure the management network settings for the supervisor cluster, note that we’ll need to reserve a 5-address block for the control plane VMs including a VIP.
Next, configure vSphere Pod network settings — for this demo we’ll reserve one /27 for the Ingress CIDR block as the NAT IPs to be consumed by Load Balancer or Ingress services; and another /27 for the Egress CIDR block as outbound SNAT IPs for provisioned K8s namespaces.
Configure storage policies by selecting the pre-provisioned pacific-gold vSAN policy, then click “Finish” to begin the deployment of supervisor cluster.
This process will take another 20~30 mins to complete, and you’ll see a cluster of 3x control plan VMs being provisioned.
Back to the “Workload Management” —> “Cluster”, you should see our supervisor cluster (consists of 3x ESXi hosts) is now up and running. Also, take a note of the VIP address of the control plan VMs as we’ll be using that IP to log into the supervisor cluster.
Step-3: Deploy a demo app with Native vSphere Pods
To consume the native vSphere Kubernetes Pods capabilities, we need to firstly create a vSphere Namespace, which is mapped to a K8s namespace within the supervisor cluster. vSphere leverages the K8s namespace logical construct to provide resource segmentation for the vSphere pods/services/deployments, and it offers a flexible way to attach authorization and network/storage policies for different environments.
Go to “Menu” —> “Workload Management”, and click “Create Namespace”.
Next, grant the vSphere admin with editor’s permission to the namespace, and assign the vSAN storage policy “pacific-gold-storage-policy” for the namespace —> this is important as (behind the scene) we are leveraging the vSANCSI (container storage interface)driver to provide persistent storage support for the cluster.
Now we are ready to dive into the vSphere supervisor cluster! Before we can do that, let’s get the Kubectl CLI and the vSphere plugin package. Open the CLI tools link at here:
Follow the onscreen instructions to download and install the vSphere Kubectl CLI toolkit onto your management host (I’m using a CentOS7 VM).
Time to log into our superviosr K8s cluster! — remember to use the control plane VIP (192.168.100.129) as noted before.
apply the PVCs yamls for both the redis master and slave Pods
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl apply -f guestbook/guestbook-master-claim.yaml
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl apply -f guestbook/guestbook-slave-claim.yaml
verify both PVCs are showing “Bound” status mapped to two dynamically provisioned persistent volumes (PVs)
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl get pvc
NAME STATUS VOLUME CAPACITY ACCESS MODES STORAGECLASS AGE
redis-master-claim Bound pvc-0102e725-41ad-440b-8a02-8af4d4768ebb 2Gi RWO pacific-gold-storage-policy 14m
redis-slave-claim Bound pvc-fb4b7bbe-9b35-40e8-b251-8f2effe85a2d 2Gi RWO pacific-gold-storage-policy 13m
Now deploy the guestbook app.
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl apply -f guestbook/guestbook-all-in-one.yaml
retrieve the Load Balancer service IP — note NSX has allocated an IP from the /27 Ingress CIDR block
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl get svc -n guestbook
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
frontend LoadBalancer 10.32.0.209 192.168.100.130 80:32610/TCP 4m15s
redis-master ClusterIP 10.32.0.34 <none> 6379/TCP 4m22s
redis-slave ClusterIP 10.32.0.197 <none> 6379/TCP 4m21s
Hit the load balancer IP in browser to test the guestbook app. Enter and submit some messages, and try to destroy and redeploy the app, your data will be kept by the redis PVs.
Step-4: Deploy a TKG cluster
Before we can deploy a TKG cluster, we’ll need to create a content library subscription by pointing to https://wp-content.vmware.com/v2/latest/lib.json, which contains the VMware Tanzu Kubernetes images:
wait for about 5~10 mins for the library to fully sync, at this point of time I can see two versions of Tanzu K8s images:
Next, create a new namespace called “dev01” which will be hosting our new TKG cluster.
Back to the CLI, we’ll switch context from “guestbook” to the new “dev01” namespace:
Once you are logged in and switched to the cluster “dev01-tkg-01” namespace, verify that you can see all 4x TKG nodes are in “Ready” status
[root@pacific-ops01 ~]# kubectl get nodes
NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
dev01-tkg-01-control-plane-n9hqx Ready master 22m v1.16.8+vmware.1
dev01-tkg-01-workers-nwmhh-c766c8f77-nnbsj Ready <none> 56s v1.16.8+vmware.1
dev01-tkg-01-workers-nwmhh-c766c8f77-pcv65 Ready <none> 61s v1.16.8+vmware.1
dev01-tkg-01-workers-nwmhh-c766c8f77-zqfwj Ready <none> 85s v1.16.8+vmware.1
We are now ready to deploy demo apps into the TKG cluster. First, update the cluster RBAC and Pod Security Policies by applying the supplied yaml config.
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl apply -f allow-nonroot-clusterrole.yaml
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl apply -f yelb/yelb-lb.yaml
wait for all the Pods up and running, then retrieve the external IP of the yelb-ui Load Balancer (assigned by NSX from the pre-provisioned /27 Ingress CIDR block)
[root@pacific-ops01 vs7-k8s]# kubectl get svc yelb-ui -n yelb-app
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
yelb-ui LoadBalancer 10.40.19.40 192.168.100.132 80:30116/TCP 9d
Go to the LB IP and you’ll see the app is running successfully.
vSphere Environment Overview
Below is a quick overview of the vSphere Lab environment after you have completed all the steps. You should see a supervisor cluster (consists of 3x ESXi worker nodes and the 3x control VMs), a TKG cluster with its own namespace, and a guestbook microservice app deployed with native vSphere Pod services by leveraging vSAN CSI.
and here is the network topology overview captured from NSX-T UI. Note NSX automatically deploys a dedicated Tier-1 gateway for every TKG cluster created. The tier-1 gateway also provides egress SNAT and Ingress LB capabilities for the TKG cluster.